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Установка Ansible на Debian 9

Ansible это система управления конфигурациями, которая используется для управления большим количеством однотипных (выполняющих одни и те же функции) хостов.
В отличие от большинства конкурентов, таких как Puppet, Chef не требует установки собственного программного обеспечения - достаточно иметь доступ к компьютеру, например по SSH.

Для управления конфигурациями Ansible использует Playbooks - специальным образом описанные на языке YAML сценарии.

Для установки Ansible на системах, использующих пакетный менеджер apt достаточно выполнить apt-get install.

apt-get instal ansible

Проверить, что ansible установился корректно можно командой:

ansible --version

Все настройки ansible по умолчанию ищет в папке /etc/ansible.
Создаем каталог и кофиг-файл по умолчанию:

mkdir -p /etc/ansible
ansible-config init --disabled > /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
  • пример рабочего /etc/ansible/ansible.conf:

 # config file for ansible --
 # ==============================================
 # nearly all parameters can be overridden in ansible-playbook
 # or with command line flags. ansible will read ANSIBLE_CONFIG,
 # ansible.cfg in the current working directory, .ansible.cfg in
 # the home directory or /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg, whichever it
 # finds first
 # some basic default values...
 '''inventory      = /etc/ansible/hosts'''
 ##- создайте папку /etc/ansible/playbooks/ - для своих '''playbooks.yaml'''
 '''library        = /etc/ansible/playbooks/'''
 '''remote_tmp     = ~/.ansible/tmp'''
 '''local_tmp      = ~/.ansible/tmp'''
 #forks          = 5
 #poll_interval  = 15
 '''sudo_user      = remotemyuser'''
 '''ask_sudo_pass = False'''
 '''ask_pass      = False'''
 '''transport      = smart'''
 '''remote_port    = 22'''
 #module_lang    = C
 #module_set_locale = False
 # plays will gather facts by default, which contain information about
 # the remote system.
 # smart - gather by default, but don't regather if already gathered
 # implicit - gather by default, turn off with gather_facts: False
 # explicit - do not gather by default, must say gather_facts: True
 #gathering = implicit
 # by default retrieve all facts subsets
 # all - gather all subsets
 # network - gather min and network facts
 # hardware - gather hardware facts (longest facts to retrieve)
 # virtual - gather min and virtual facts
 # facter - import facts from facter
 # ohai - import facts from ohai
 # You can combine them using comma (ex: network,virtual)
 # You can negate them using ! (ex: !hardware,!facter,!ohai)
 # A minimal set of facts is always gathered.
 #gather_subset = all
 # some hardware related facts are collected
 # with a maximum timeout of 10 seconds. This
 # option lets you increase or decrease that
 # timeout to something more suitable for the
 # environment. 
 # gather_timeout = 10
 # additional paths to search for roles in, colon separated
 #roles_path    = /etc/ansible/roles
 # uncomment this to disable SSH key host checking
 #host_key_checking = False
 # change the default callback
 #stdout_callback = skippy
 # enable additional callbacks
 #callback_whitelist = timer, mail
 # Determine whether includes in tasks and handlers are "static" by
 # default. As of 2.0, includes are dynamic by default. Setting these
 # values to True will make includes behave more like they did in the
 # 1.x versions.
 #task_includes_static = True
 #handler_includes_static = True
 # Controls if a missing handler for a notification event is an error or a warning
 #error_on_missing_handler = True
 # change this for alternative sudo implementations
 #sudo_exe = sudo
 # What flags to pass to sudo
 # WARNING: leaving out the defaults might create unexpected behaviours
 #sudo_flags = -H -S -n
 # SSH timeout
 #timeout = 10
 # default user to use for playbooks if user is not specified
 # (/usr/bin/ansible will use current user as default)
 '''remote_user = remotemyuser'''
 # logging is off by default unless this path is defined
 # if so defined, consider logrotate
 #log_path = /var/log/ansible.log
 # default module name for /usr/bin/ansible
 #module_name = command
 # use this shell for commands executed under sudo
 # you may need to change this to bin/bash in rare instances
 # if sudo is constrained
 #executable = /bin/sh
 # if inventory variables overlap, does the higher precedence one win
 # or are hash values merged together?  The default is 'replace' but
 # this can also be set to 'merge'.
 #hash_behaviour = replace
 # by default, variables from roles will be visible in the global variable
 # scope. To prevent this, the following option can be enabled, and only
 # tasks and handlers within the role will see the variables there
 #private_role_vars = yes
 # list any Jinja2 extensions to enable here:
 #jinja2_extensions =,jinja2.ext.i18n
 # if set, always use this private key file for authentication, same as
 # if passing --private-key to ansible or ansible-playbook
 #private_key_file = /path/to/file
 # If set, configures the path to the Vault password file as an alternative to
 # specifying --vault-password-file on the command line.
 #vault_password_file = /path/to/vault_password_file
 # format of string {{ ansible_managed }} available within Jinja2
 # templates indicates to users editing templates files will be replaced.
 # replacing {file}, {host} and {uid} and strftime codes with proper values.
 #ansible_managed = Ansible managed: {file} modified on %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S by {uid} on {host}
 # {file}, {host}, {uid}, and the timestamp can all interfere with idempotence
 # in some situations so the default is a static string:
 #ansible_managed = Ansible managed
 # by default, ansible-playbook will display "Skipping [host]" if it determines a task
 # should not be run on a host.  Set this to "False" if you don't want to see these "Skipping"
 # messages. NOTE: the task header will still be shown regardless of whether or not the
 # task is skipped.
 #display_skipped_hosts = True
 # by default, if a task in a playbook does not include a name: field then
 # ansible-playbook will construct a header that includes the task's action but
 # not the task's args.  This is a security feature because ansible cannot know
 # if the *module* considers an argument to be no_log at the time that the
 # header is printed.  If your environment doesn't have a problem securing
 # stdout from ansible-playbook (or you have manually specified no_log in your
 # playbook on all of the tasks where you have secret information) then you can
 # safely set this to True to get more informative messages.
 #display_args_to_stdout = False
 # by default (as of 1.3), Ansible will raise errors when attempting to dereference
 # Jinja2 variables that are not set in templates or action lines. Uncomment this line
 # to revert the behavior to pre-1.3.
 #error_on_undefined_vars = False
 # by default (as of 1.6), Ansible may display warnings based on the configuration of the
 # system running ansible itself. This may include warnings about 3rd party packages or
 # other conditions that should be resolved if possible.
 # to disable these warnings, set the following value to False:
 #system_warnings = True
 # by default (as of 1.4), Ansible may display deprecation warnings for language
 # features that should no longer be used and will be removed in future versions.
 # to disable these warnings, set the following value to False:
 #deprecation_warnings = True
 # (as of 1.8), Ansible can optionally warn when usage of the shell and
 # command module appear to be simplified by using a default Ansible module
 # instead.  These warnings can be silenced by adjusting the following
 # setting or adding warn=yes or warn=no to the end of the command line
 # parameter string.  This will for example suggest using the git module
 # instead of shelling out to the git command.
 # command_warnings = False
 # set plugin path directories here, separate with colons
 #action_plugins     = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/action
 #cache_plugins      = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/cache
 #callback_plugins   = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/callback
 #connection_plugins = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/connection
 #lookup_plugins     = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/lookup
 #inventory_plugins  = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/inventory
 #vars_plugins       = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/vars
 #filter_plugins     = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/filter
 #test_plugins       = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/test
 #strategy_plugins   = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/strategy
 # by default callbacks are not loaded for /bin/ansible, enable this if you
 # want, for example, a notification or logging callback to also apply to
 # /bin/ansible runs
 #bin_ansible_callbacks = False
 # don't like cows?  that's unfortunate.
 # set to 1 if you don't want cowsay support or export ANSIBLE_NOCOWS=1
 #nocows = 1
 # set which cowsay stencil you'd like to use by default. When set to 'random',
 # a random stencil will be selected for each task. The selection will be filtered
 # against the `cow_whitelist` option below.
 #cow_selection = default
 #cow_selection = random
 # when using the 'random' option for cowsay, stencils will be restricted to this list.
 # it should be formatted as a comma-separated list with no spaces between names.
 # NOTE: line continuations here are for formatting purposes only, as the INI parser
 #       in python does not support them.
 #              hellokitty,kitty,luke-koala,meow,milk,moofasa,moose,ren,sheep,small,stegosaurus,\
 #              stimpy,supermilker,three-eyes,turkey,turtle,tux,udder,vader-koala,vader,www
 # don't like colors either?
 # set to 1 if you don't want colors, or export ANSIBLE_NOCOLOR=1
 #nocolor = 1
 # if set to a persistent type (not 'memory', for example 'redis') fact values
 # from previous runs in Ansible will be stored.  This may be useful when
 # wanting to use, for example, IP information from one group of servers
 # without having to talk to them in the same playbook run to get their
 # current IP information.
 #fact_caching = memory
 # retry files
 # When a playbook fails by default a .retry file will be created in ~/
 # You can disable this feature by setting retry_files_enabled to False
 # and you can change the location of the files by setting retry_files_save_path
 #retry_files_enabled = False
 #retry_files_save_path = ~/.ansible-retry
 # squash actions
 # Ansible can optimise actions that call modules with list parameters
 # when looping. Instead of calling the module once per with_ item, the
 # module is called once with all items at once. Currently this only works
 # under limited circumstances, and only with parameters named 'name'.
 #squash_actions = apk,apt,dnf,homebrew,package,pacman,pkgng,yum,zypper
 # prevents logging of task data, off by default
 #no_log = False
 # prevents logging of tasks, but only on the targets, data is still logged on the master/controller
 #no_target_syslog = False
 # controls whether Ansible will raise an error or warning if a task has no
 # choice but to create world readable temporary files to execute a module on
 # the remote machine.  This option is False by default for security.  Users may
 # turn this on to have behaviour more like Ansible prior to 2.1.x.  See
 # for more secure ways to fix this than enabling this option.
 #allow_world_readable_tmpfiles = False
 # controls the compression level of variables sent to
 # worker processes. At the default of 0, no compression
 # is used. This value must be an integer from 0 to 9.
 #var_compression_level = 9
 # controls what compression method is used for new-style ansible modules when
 # they are sent to the remote system.  The compression types depend on having
 # support compiled into both the controller's python and the client's python.
 # The names should match with the python Zipfile compression types:
 # * ZIP_STORED (no compression. available everywhere)
 # * ZIP_DEFLATED (uses zlib, the default)
 # These values may be set per host via the ansible_module_compression inventory
 # variable
 #module_compression = 'ZIP_DEFLATED'
 # This controls the cutoff point (in bytes) on --diff for files
 # set to 0 for unlimited (RAM may suffer!).
 #max_diff_size = 1048576
 # uncomment this line to cause the paramiko connection plugin to not record new host
 # keys encountered.  Increases performance on new host additions.  Setting works independently of the
 # host key checking setting above.
 # by default, Ansible requests a pseudo-terminal for commands executed under sudo. Uncomment this
 # line to disable this behaviour.
 # ssh arguments to use
 # Leaving off ControlPersist will result in poor performance, so use
 # paramiko on older platforms rather than removing it, -C controls compression use
 #ssh_args = -C -o ControlMaster=auto -o ControlPersist=60s
 # The path to use for the ControlPath sockets. This defaults to
 # "%(directory)s/ansible-ssh-%%h-%%p-%%r", however on some systems with
 # very long hostnames or very long path names (caused by long user names or
 # deeply nested home directories) this can exceed the character limit on
 # file socket names (108 characters for most platforms). In that case, you
 # may wish to shorten the string below.
 # Example:
 # control_path = %(directory)s/%%h-%%r
 #control_path = %(directory)s/ansible-ssh-%%h-%%p-%%r
 # Enabling pipelining reduces the number of SSH operations required to
 # execute a module on the remote server. This can result in a significant
 # performance improvement when enabled, however when using "sudo:" you must
 # first disable 'requiretty' in /etc/sudoers
 # By default, this option is disabled to preserve compatibility with
 # sudoers configurations that have requiretty (the default on many distros).
 #pipelining = False
 # Control the mechanism for transfering files
 #   * smart = try sftp and then try scp [default]
 #   * True = use scp only
 #   * False = use sftp only
 #scp_if_ssh = smart
 # if False, sftp will not use batch mode to transfer files. This may cause some
 # types of file transfer failures impossible to catch however, and should
 # only be disabled if your sftp version has problems with batch mode
 #sftp_batch_mode = False
 #accelerate_port = 5099
 #accelerate_timeout = 30
 #accelerate_connect_timeout = 5.0
 # The daemon timeout is measured in minutes. This time is measured
 # from the last activity to the accelerate daemon.
 #accelerate_daemon_timeout = 30
 # If set to yes, accelerate_multi_key will allow multiple
 # private keys to be uploaded to it, though each user must
 # have access to the system via SSH to add a new key. The default
 # is "no".
 #accelerate_multi_key = yes
 # file systems that require special treatment when dealing with security context
 # the default behaviour that copies the existing context or uses the user default
 # needs to be changed to use the file system dependent context.
 # Set this to yes to allow libvirt_lxc connections to work without SELinux.
 #libvirt_lxc_noseclabel = yes
 #highlight = white
 #verbose = blue
 #warn = bright purple
 #error = red
 #debug = dark gray
 #deprecate = purple
 #skip = cyan
 #unreachable = red
 #ok = green
 #changed = yellow
 #diff_add = green
 #diff_remove = red
 #diff_lines = cyan

Для того, чтобы ansible могу управлять каким-либо хостом, необходимо сгенерировать ему файл ключа ssh с помощью ssh-keygen. На первый вопрос о том, в какой файл сгенерировать ключ нажать enter, на второй можно ввести парольную фразу с подтверждением, но тогда ее придется вводить всякий раз когда будет запрашиваться доступ к серверу, поэтому ее также оставляем пустой.

 root@debian9:~# ssh-keygen
 Generating public/private rsa key pair.
 Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa):
 Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
 Enter same passphrase again:
 Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
 Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/
 The key fingerprint is:
 SHA256:AJZ2E5a+V+dNUvMbGdAwaj8xLiCJ9EkV7TaeSA5pr4I root@debian9
 The key's randomart image is:
 +---[RSA 2048]----+
 |	ooo+.oo  ++  |
 |   .+oB o  .. +o |
 |   . +.*...o + oo|
 |  	.=..++= +o.|
 |  	..S.++oB  o|
 |  	. .+ oo o. |
 |	.  ..    	|
 |   E . .     	|
 |  	.      	|

Обменяться открытыми ключами с управляемым сервером с помощью команды ssh-copy-id <имя или ip сервера>.
После этого при попытке соединиться с данным сервером автоматически прочтется ключ доступа
и произойдет вход на целевой сервер без дополнительных запросов.

 ssh-copy-id root@
 /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/"
 /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
 /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
 root@'s password:
 Number of key(s) added: 1
 Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@'"
 and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
 root@debian9:~# ssh
 Last login: Thu Jul 26 15:49:46 2018 from
  • Для Debian на каждом управляемом хосте внести еще 2 изменения:
1. внести своего удаленного пользователя в группу sudo и еще несколько групп которые могут влиять на команды извне если это необходимо
 usermod admin -G disk,lp,users,cdrom,floppy,sudo,fax,video,audio,dip,dialout;
2. дописать в /etc/sudoers:
#includedir /etc/sudoers.d


echo "%sudo ALL=NOPASSWD: ALL">>/etc/sudoers

Теперь можно добавить этот хост в файл:


Хост можно добавить отдельно или в любую группу, если хостов несколько, например в webservers

  • Проверим доступность хостов для Ansible:
 ansible -m ping webservers 
 $ ansible dnsservers -m ping | success >> {
     "changed": false,
     "ping": "pong"

Теперь создадим какой-нибудь плейбук - например установим nginx на сервер с ОС Centos.
ОС на управляющем и управляемом могут не совпадать.

nano /etc/ansible/nginst.yml
 - hosts:
    - name: Install Nginx
  	yum: pkg=nginx state=latest

Здесь используются следующие команды:

   hosts: задает имя или ip хоста к которому применять данное действие. Можно вписать имя группы - тогда применится ко всем членам данной группы
  • tasks: описание задачи
  • name: Install Nginx - наименование задачи
  • yum: pkg=nginx state=latest -действие. В данном случае это установить пакет nginx через yum, ключ state определяет что делать с пакетом
    • latest - означает установить или обновить до последней версии, если пакет есть
    • present - просто установить
    • absent - удалить пакет

Теперь запустим наш плейбук командой:

ansible-playbook /etc/ansible/nginst.yml

Если все сделано правильно, то вывод должен быть такой:

root@debian9:~# ansible-playbook /etc/ansible/nginst.yml
PLAY [] ****************************************************************

TASK [setup] *******************************************************************
ok: []

TASK [Install Nginx] ***********************************************************
changed: []

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************               	: ok=2	changed=1	unreachable=0	failed=0

После этого надо запустить nginx на целевом сервере.

Для системы Debian пример для обновления нескольких хостов:

# apt-update for servers
- hosts: mediaservers
    - name: Update dvr
      apt: upgrade=yes update_cache=yes cache_valid_time=86400
# update all web
- hosts: webservers
    - name: Update www
      apt: upgrade=yes update_cache=yes cache_valid_time=86400
# update mail
- hosts: mailservers
    - name: Update mail
      apt: upgrade=yes update_cache=yes cache_valid_time=86400